Git Stuff I Keep Forgetting

Git commands I keep forgetting:

Thanks to http://rogerdudler.github.io/git-guide/ for the inspiration.

Tell git Who you Are

git config --global user.name "Chris Strutton"
git config --global user.email "chris@rodandfly.ca"

Create a New Repository

From within the project directory:

git init

to create a new git repo.

If its an existing project, add everything and commit:

git add . ;git commit -m 'Initial Commit'

Checkout a Repository

Create a working copy of a local repo:

git clone /path/to/repo

Create a working copy from a remote server:

git clone username@host:/path/to/repo

Add & Commit

You can propose changes (add it to the Index) using

git add <filename>
git add .

This is the first step in the basic git workflow. To actually commit these changes use

git commit -m "Commit message"

Now the file is committed to the HEAD, but not in your remote repository yet.

Pushing Changes

Your changes are now in the HEAD of your local working copy. To send those changes to your remote repository, execute

git push origin master

Change master to whatever branch you want to push your changes to.

If you have not cloned an existing repository and want to connect your repository to a remote server, you need to add it with

git remote add origin <server>

Now you are able to push your changes to the selected remote server

branching

Branches are used to develop features isolated from each other. The master branch is the “default” branch when you create a repository. Use other branches for development and merge them back to the master branch upon completion.

create a new branch named “feature_x” and switch to it using

git checkout -b feature_x

switch back to master

git checkout master

and delete the branch again

git branch -d feature_x

a branch is not available to others unless you push the branch to your remote repository

git push origin <branch>

update & merge

to update your local repository to the newest commit, execute

git pull

in your working directory to fetch and merge remote changes.
to merge another branch into your active branch (e.g. master), use

git merge <branch>

in both cases git tries to auto-merge changes. Unfortunately, this is not always possible and results in conflicts. You are responsible to merge those conflicts manually by editing the files shown by git. After changing, you need to mark them as merged with

git add <filename>

before merging changes, you can also preview them by using

git diff <source_branch> <target_branch>

tagging

it’s recommended to create tags for software releases. this is a known concept, which also exists in SVN. You can create a new tag named 1.0.0 by executing

git tag 1.0.0 1b2e1d63ff

the 1b2e1d63ff stands for the first 10 characters of the commit id you want to reference with your tag. You can get the commit id by looking at the…

log

in its simplest form, you can study repository history using..

git log

You can add a lot of parameters to make the log look like what you want. To see only the commits of a certain author:

git log --author=bob

To see a very compressed log where each commit is one line:

git log --pretty=oneline

Or maybe you want to see an ASCII art tree of all the branches, decorated with the names of tags and branches:

git log --graph --oneline --decorate --all

See only which files have changed:

git log --name-status

These are just a few of the possible parameters you can use. For more, see

git log --help

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